away the starch in the dough. You Know? • bowls (one for each flour you’ll Cinnamon, nutmeg, and cloves are classic cake spices. With low-gluten cake or pastry flours, you may want to put the dough in cheesecloth in order to hold it together. You may remember from my puff pastry tutorial, that there are many dough relaxation stages. ball of dough. Pasta made from low-gluten … In cakes, you want a fine crumb, which means very tiny air holes. You want to add ingredients that attract moisture and hold it in the structure. This would result in bread that is too tough and chewy. Therefore, it makes sense that bread flour has a higher protein content than other flours: higher protein content = more gluten. flours that yield delicate, tender doughs. ; This stage “works” the dough, stretching the gluten complexes. Into 2. the gluten too strong, which makes for a tough, chewy finished I’ve mentioned before that Canadian flour generally has higher protein content than most European flours. Use brown sugar. Just something for my fellow Canadians to think about. Luckily, there are ways of controlling gluten to obtain the optimal amount of gluten development for the particular baked good you are working with. You get the idea! out this Vegetarian Journal article: Bloom cocoa powder in hot water. It is a protein that is found in wheat and other grains and is responsible for the shape and texture of many baked goods. This gluten-free trend has sparked some pretty heated debates; however, there isn’t enough evidence to conclude that gluten-free should be for everyone. Did This blocks water from hydrating the gluten proteins, thereby preventing the gluten strands from developing further. In baking, gluten is mainly used for the light texture and Here are several ways of getting a tender, fine crumb in gluten-free cakes: Add a little extra leavening. how much smaller your ball has become—and how much more distinct taste it gives bread. Add more spices. have a finished gluten ball. © And you can add a bit more than the recipe calls for. The coarseness of the crumb is likely caused by the lack of acidity, which allows gluten proteins to readily form, and the neutral liquid which can bolster gluten formation. is gluten so important? But flour also contains & Discuss Cake and pastry flours have lower protein contents because we don’t want too much gluten formation in these baked goods. You’ll notice the water turning milky as it washes away the starch in the dough. You Know? If you find a recipe that has a wonderful texture but the flavor isn’t quite there, try these tricks: Add fruit purées in place of some of the liquid. The main difference between bread, cake, pastry, and all-purpose flours is the protein content. it with soy sauce, ginger, garlic, and seaweed. The finished To flour will make a dough with strong gluten, good for hearty And no more starch in the dough, leaving nearly pure gluten. This is also the reason why recipes for cookie dough, cake and muffin batter, etc. and protein. Strong flours such as those made from durum wheat are good for making pasta because of their high gluten content. While I eat gluten myself, I have experimented with gluten-free baking. I’ve mentioned before that Canadian flour generally has higher protein content than most European flours. depending on how they are meant to be used. Take a minute to compare the differences between bread dough and pie dough. Gluten and Pasta . Bread, Celiac disease, Gluten, Gluten-free, Wheat. While bread has a high gluten content, other baked goods, such as pastries, should have relatively low amounts of gluten. be using) the dough in cheesecloth in order to hold it together. does the texture of each one differ as you wash away the starch? Not surprisingly, baked goods that do not rely as heavily on gluten are easier to make gluten-free. Are the Beat well. around the ball and squeezing gently to remove the starch. It is, after all, almost pure protein. For many baked goods, When you run water over dough in this activity, you wash away Cake and pastry flours have lower protein contents because we don’t want too much gluten formation in these baked goods. That’s gluten. This does not mean, however, that the more gluten in bread and the less gluten in pastries the better. Finally, the gluten hardens, and you dough ball will become a gummy, slimy network of gluten strands. A tiny bit adds flavor and interest to just about any cake recipe. All-purpose flour is somewhere in between. 5. When mixed with water, these two proteins combine to create gluten particles, which in turn come together to create gluten strands in the dough. Understanding how gluten formation occurs and how it can be developed or kept under control is a foundational principle of baking. Please feel free to contact me if you are interested in gluten-free baking and I will be happy to post some recipes that have worked for me. For Adding a little bit more baking soda and baking powder can give the cake batter the extra lift it needs for a fine and tender crumb. When dough. because of its chewy texture, many people—especially each bowl, and knead each mixture until it forms a soft, rubbery Use more sugar. • Exploratorium | Use Policy This gluten-relaxation lessens the elasticity of the dough, making it easier to roll out. My favourite gluten-free flour is Schar Mix Patisserie. Bread dough also relies on gluten to trap the gases that are produced by yeast during fermentation. How Gluten-free flours are heavier and grab more moisture than wheat flours. Have you ever noticed that when you knead dough, it becomes elastic? of an adult. Be careful I think a closer look into these flours deserves a separate post because it isn’t quite that simple, but for now, let’s just worry about protein content. Here are several ways of getting a tender, fine crumb in gluten-free cakes: Add a little extra leavening. Bread dough relies on gluten to hold the itself together, which is why gluten-free bread tends to be crumbly. Share For cake recipes that use cocoa powder, bloom just means to enhance the flavor in some way. Keep pouring out the cloudy How the Variety of Flour Effects Gluten Development As discussed in our lesson about the function of flour in baking , choosing the right variety of flour is critical for gluten … Keep pouring out the cloudy water that collects in the bottom of the bowl. Most other cake and pastry flours are around 6-8% protein. Water is absolutely essential: no water means no gluten. gluten balls all the same size, or are some larger than others? Gluten has become a rather hot topic lately, as gluten-free diets are becoming increasingly popular. Substitute sparkling water or soda pop for some of the liquid. Gluten is both plastic—able to change shape—and And the cake should be moist, not dry. Most cake recipes are designed to be full of flavor. A high-protein Fig. In Canada, however, the most common all-purpose flour  brand (Robin Hood) has a protein content of around 13%. Xanthan gum and guar gum are often used to make up for the lack of gluten and help hold the crumbs together. The more the gluten is developed, the tougher and chewier the baked good. If the gluten is too developed, bread dough will no longer stretch easily (think of a really tough elastic band that is difficult to stretch out.) CAUTION But stronger isn’t always better. That’s a food science term for ingredients that are chopped very finely. This means that gluten itself isn’t actually present in the flour, but rather its components. Use another type of liquid instead of milk or water. Fat, on the other hand, hinders gluten development by creating a coating around the proteins. Slowly add about 1/2 to 3/4 cup water to the flour in Gluten is not a single protein but a mixture of cereal proteins, about 80% of its dry weight (for example gliadins and glutenins in wheat grains), lipids, 5-7%, starch, 5-10%, water, 5-8%, and mineral substances, <2%. like pastries and pie crusts, it’s important to avoid If not, label them. product. Remember that gluten forms once glutenin and gliadin are mixed with water. 3. why different flours contain different amounts of protein, yeast breads. water that collects in the bottom of the bowl. This happens to be the same percentage  as the Robin Hood Bread Flour.Weird. This adds air to the batter. This is not the case for pie dough. Real vanilla or real almond extract adds more flavor than imitation extracts. 1 Fig. But it’s also nutritious My best results have been from mixing rice, millet, potato, and soy flours together to make some pretty great muffins. If your bowls look different, remember which one contains

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